Misarma Enterprise: Types of Fumigation
And The Chemicals Use In Different Fumigation Types
There are several types of fumigation that are commonly used by fumigation companies. We have previously talked about why fumigation is important (source here and here). It is a known fact that fumigation companies use many kinds of fumigation chemicals. In this article, we will not just cover the different types of fumigation. We will also talk about some of the common kinds of chemicals fumigation companies use.
The Different Kinds of Fumigation
Fumigation generally refers to the removal of unwanted pest from the premises. It stereotypically refers to the method of using poisonous gas to remove termites and other similar bugs. Fumigation and pest removal companies generally use several different kinds of fumigation methods. Here are just some of the more common ones.
Gas fumigation engages fumigants in their gas states for pest control services. According to John Burke Sullivan and Gary R. Krieger in their book “Clinical Environmental Health and Toxic Exposures“, they said that:
Gas fumigation is performed within enclosed chambers or by enclosing a space with a gas-proof covering. This method of fumigation, called space fumigation, ensures toxic fumigants are not dispersed to the external environment.
Methyl bromide (one of the commonly used fumigants) is a gaseous fumigant that is used to control rodents, termites, insects, nematodes and weeds.
Sulfuryl fluoride (another commonly used fumigants) is a gas fumigant that is used to control pests in cereal grains, tree nuts and dry fruits. Gas fumigation should only be attempted after an area is cleared of any humans and animals.
Solid fumigation systems and methods engages solid fumigants for insect control. According to M.R. Ghosh in his book “Concepts of Insect Control“, he says that solid fumigation is carried out by sprinkling tablets, powders or pellets of measured quantities of fumigants.
According to the Wood Center, solid fumigants are usually easier to use and safer than gaseous fumigants. They are also less harmful to the environment. However, according to the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), solid fumigants are related to a whole lot of health-related concerns.
Aluminium phosphide is a solid fumigant that removes and eradicates pests and insects in all stages of its development (eggs, larvae, pupae and adults). It is usually used for pest control in flour, tea, doffer, cotton and grain. Calcium cyanide is a solid fumigant that responds to water vapor to form hydrogen cyanide. It efficiently eliminates a wide range of pests.
This liquid fumigation usually engages liquid fumigants for mould, pests and insects. The very same liquid fumigation is usually carried out by sprayers. It typically scatters large quantities of liquid over a desired area. The majority of liquid fumigants are toxic to humans, flammable and volatile. According to Timothy J. Gibb and C. Y. Oseto in the book “Arthropod Collection and Identification“, liquid fumigation generally acts faster than solid fumigation.
Liquid fumigation is considered the safest when performed outdoors or within an enclosed fumigation chamber. Some instances of liquid fumigants include carbon disulfide, ethyl acetate, chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, sulfuryl fluoride, ethylene dichloride and methyl bromide.
Common Types of Fumigant Chemicals
Fumigation services may use several different chemicals will to fumigate your property based on your pest. The chemicals used for termite control by our sub-company Prokil Pest will, for example, not be the same as those used for rodents and flying insects. There are some that are used across most pests. It will more often than not feature in most fumigation procedures. Here are some of the more commonly used fumigants:
Magnesium Phosphide (Or Phosphine Gases)
This dark grey solid fumigant is used in granule form or powder form. Magnesium phosphide will produce phosphine gas when mixed with the moisture in your environment. It can also produce phosphine when interacting with an acid. The gas produced is super toxic and will get rid of agricultural pests and burrowing pests like termites.
Some pest controllers use aluminum phosphide that functions the same way as magnesium phosphide. This gets rid of pests in all of its stages of their development. Solid fumigants are seen as safer options when compared to gaseous ones. Since their application is easy to control anyway.
Phosphine gasses are a common fumigant used to control stored product insects. On top of treating infested grains, cereals and flours, it is also the preferred fumigant to eliminate insects. You may find that such insects infest tobacco leaves in storage such as cigarette beetle (Lasioderma serricorne).
This is a super efficacious fumigant that kills and eliminates almost all pests. Methyl bromide is applied in a solid or gaseous form conferring to where and how the fumigant is used. It is one of the fastest-acting chemicals on the market currently. Methyl bromide is commonly used for outbreaks as a quarantine chemical. The very same chemical is extremely powerful, and its use is usually reserved for severe infestation and agricultural pests. In residential applications, methyl bromide can use it to remove termites, rodents, and insects.
The rapid kill and deep penetration properties of Methyl Bromide into merchandises have given this gas a priority over other fumigants. Especially with fumigants that are in quarantine services. However, this fumigant is restricted to quarantine pre-shipment service. It is under the Critical Use Exemption (CUE) due to the controlled use of Methyl Bromide.
This is used as a pressurized liquid gas. It is generally used for the control of pests in residential settings. The very same chemical is also used in dry fruits, cereal grains, and tree nuts. Sometimes is also used in lumber and automobile yards, although not regularly. Other than its toxicity, sulfuryl fluoride may also cause severe skin irritation and burns when it is in a liquid state. An area will, therefore, be vacated of animals and humans before the use of sulfuryl fluoride gas for fumigation purposes.
This is a solid type of fumigant that will react with the moisture in your environment. When reacted with moisture, it will form hydrogen cyanide. This is a supremely toxic fumigant that can kill almost all pests in your premises. Unfortunately, the gas is highly toxic to pets and humans too. That means it is generally restricted to outdoor areas where it can disintegrate a lot faster into harmless compounds.
The bottom line is that picking the correct chemical for your property’s fumigation is no easy task. It needs the expertise to get the right formulation for the killing of pests. At the same time, you will also have to make sure that there is minimal harm to other elements in your environment when you are disseminating the different types of fumigation. The type of fumigation method is also customized. This is so that the chemical can penetrate every nook and cranny of your infrastructure. When fumigating your outdoors, most pest control companies will use a nylon or plastic tent to hold the chemical in a treatment area.